Rice smut is a kind of fungal disease that occurred in late rice. In recent years, it has occurred in the rice area of ​​Shangri-La County, and has been increasing year by year, affecting rice yield and quality.
(I) Pathogenesis Rhizoctonia mainly sclerotia winters in the soil, and secondly, it can also use the chlamydospores to overwinter in the damaged grain or on the grain husk. In the following year, from July to August, when the sclerotia and the sclerotia When the spores encounter suitable conditions, they can germinate to produce ascospores and conidia, and invade the rice flower and young seedlings. After the bacteria invaded, the pale yellow lumps were first exposed at the joints of the glumes, and then they swelled like a ball, wrapped in the glume of the glume, and eventually split, scattering dark green powder, often with several grains per panicle.
(B) the incidence of factors
1. The climatic conditions are the important factors affecting the development and infestation of the rice smut. The smut fungus can develop at a temperature of 24-32, and the 26-28 is most suitable. Above 34, it cannot grow. At the same time, the ascospores and conidia of rice blast bacteria invade flower plants by wind and rain. Therefore, the climate factors affecting the development and infestation of rice smut are mainly rainfall, and rain and rainfall are the main factors affecting the development and infestation of rice smut. More often than not, the humidity in the field is large and less sunshine occurs.
2. Varieties Generally, the late-maturing varieties are more severe than the early-maturing varieties, and the varieties with short stems, large spikes, wide leaves and small angles, resistance to lodging and lodging, and suitable for dense planting are conducive to the occurrence of rice smut, and the surface of the glume is rough without hair. The incidence of the disease is heavy.
3, cultivation and management of extensive cultivation and management, the density is too large, too deep irrigation, poor drainage, especially in the secretory phase of rice germination to heading period, the growth of rice plants lush, if excessive nitrogen fertilizer, resulting in late-maturing rice, flag leaves The high nitrogen content will aggravate the development of the disease and increase the number of diseased grains.
(c) Control measures
1. Select disease-resistant varieties to eliminate susceptible varieties, select disease-resistant varieties and compare disease-resistant varieties according to local conditions.
2. Eliminating the initial infestation source When ploughing and soil preparation, combine prevention and treatment of sheath blight, remove scum, eliminate sclerotia, and do a good job of seed sterilization, using 2%-3% lime water or 50% carbendazim 500 times or strong chlorine soaking for 12 hours.
3, reasonable dressing fertilizer in the application of fertilizer should be enough base fertilizer, early application of top dressing, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium with a reasonable mix, enhance the disease resistance of rice plants, should not be late, partial nitrogen fertilizer. Timely and moderately cultivated fields enhanced the root activity of rice plants, reduced the humidity in the field, and improved rice disease resistance.
4, timely spraying control in the heading flowering period encountered more rain, high humidity weather, should be at the end of the panicle to break the mouth 2-3 days before the timely spraying control effect is good, generally with 50% carbendazim per acre can Wet powder 100g watered 70kg spray. Or 50% thiophanate-methyl wettable powder 1000 times per acre spray control around 6 days before the ear, but also with 5% Jinggangmycin 60g per mu and 50% Fumei 150g plus water 50kg spray, the effect can be More than 90% can also cure sheath blight.

Objective To evaluate the methods and the effects of an Airway Management nursing team in clinical practice

Airway Management

Airway Management,Airway Management Devices,Emergency Airway Management,Airway Obstruction Management

Zhejiang Hisern Medical Technology Co., Ltd , https://www.hisernmedical.com