In recent years, people have researched and developed antibiotic alternatives such as feed enzyme preparations, feed microbial preparations, acidulants, antimicrobial peptides, oligosaccharides, allicin, Chinese herbal medicines, and organic metal trace elements. These green feed additives have been The favor.

1 enzyme preparation

Since the establishment of the first enzyme preparation factory in Wuxi in 1965, after more than 30 years of hard work, our country's enzyme preparation products have continuously increased and the quality has been continuously improved. Alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, protease, lipase, and There are hundreds of products such as cellulase, pectinase, β-glucanase, mannase, and phytase. At present, the most commonly used feed additives for enzyme preparations are divided into two categories: one is degradative polysaccharides and biomacromolecules, mainly including proteases, lipases, amylases, glucoamylases, cellulases, xylanases, Mannanase. Its main function is to destroy the plant cell wall (the plant cell wall is connected by a protein, fat, polysaccharide blue bond into a network structure), so that the cell contents are fully released. The other is based on the degradation of phytic acid, β-glucan, pectin and other anti-nutritional factors, mainly including phytase, β-glucanase, pectinase. It can degrade cell wall xylan and intercellular pectin components and improve feed utilization. Carbohydrate enzymes increase digestion including non-starch polysaccharides, proteases increase the utilization of soybeans or other plant proteins, lipases promote the breakdown of fats, and phytases increase the digestion and absorption of phosphorus and other mineral elements. For broiler chicken feed formulated with 30% soybean meal and 60% corn, the theoretical mannan content is 0.42%, which will reduce feed utilization by 7.5%. Using mannanase, feed conversion efficiency can be increased by 7.7% and cost savings by 10%.

2 feeding microbial preparations

Probiotics are direct-fed microbials (DFM) or live bacteria or biocides that can be fed directly to animals. In 1989, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Feed Control Officials Association announced 40 safe and effective microbial strains.

(1) Lactobacillus preparation st Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus bifidum, and Streptococcus faecalis. Lactic acid bacteria can survive under microaerophilic or anaerobic conditions, pH 3.0 to 4.5 acidic conditions. Can decompose sugars to produce lactic acid, Acidoline (Acidoline), can effectively inhibit the growth of E. coli, Salmonella, but not heat-resistant, died at 65 ~ 75 °C.

Bacillus preparations include B. licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Toyobacillus, and the like and belong to the group of aerobic Bacillus sporangia, which are present in the microflora of animal intestines. When it is applied, the viable bacteria preparation in the dormant state of the bacterium is used or mixed with lactic acid bacteria. Products have more advantages: acid, salt, high temperature (100 °C) and extrusion-resistant, with stability; can produce protease, lipase, amylase.

(3) Fungal and live yeast preparations St. There are currently two commonly used products, Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures, which are preparations including fungi and their cultures, and are mostly used for ruminants. Its main feature is aerobic, hi growth in polysaccharides, acid conditions, and its body is rich in protein and a variety of B vitamins, but not heat-resistant.

The main role of probiotics: to maintain microecological balance in the intestine, probiotics can produce hydrolase, fermentation enzymes and respiratory enzymes, anti-pollution effect of probiotics, probiotic immune regulation.

3 Acidifier

Acidifiers can be divided into organic acids and inorganic acids. The organic acids mainly include citric acid, fumaric acid, etc. The commonly used inorganic acid is phosphoric acid. The animal's stomach is in an acidic environment, in which the bacteria are mostly acid-producing bacteria and acid-fast bacteria. The young animals have weak secretion of gastric acid, making it easy for the external bacteria to survive and reproduce. The use of an acidifying agent can increase the acidity of gastric juice, promote the proliferation of acid-fast bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria, and maintain the status of dominant bacteria in the stomach, while E. coli and other foreign bacteria can not adapt to the acidic environment, and can't be colonized by lactic acid bacteria, etc. Survival can therefore reduce the incidence of pathological diarrhea in animals. Acidifiers can also help the body adjust the immune system response and enhance the animal's resistance to disease.

Organic acids can improve the digestion process (especially for monogastric animal pigs. The effect of poultry is not significant; digestion, protein, carbohydrate digestion, the need to continuously consume H +, the use of organic acids can reduce intestinal pH; affect the microorganism The replication of DNA inhibits the colonization of undesirable microorganisms in the front of the digestive tract.The addition of organic and inorganic acids to the feed can be used as a method to protect the health of animals without the use of antibiotics.The acidifier directly stimulates the taste bud cells of the oral cavity and causes saliva secretion. Increases appetite, promotes appetite, improves protein digestibility and protein deposition, facilitates absorption of trace elements, and enhances resistance to diseases.Adding organic acids can increase the acidity of immature digestive tracts in young animals and activate some important digestive enzymes. It is beneficial to the digestion of nutrients.Acidified diets can inhibit or prevent the colonization and reproduction of E. coli or other harmful microorganisms in the intestine, prevent the occurrence of intestinal diseases, and can also improve the ability of animals to resist stress.

4 antimicrobial peptides

Antibacterial peptides mainly include cecropin, magainin, defensin, and Tachvplesin. Antimicrobial peptides not only have a broad-spectrum antibacterial effect, but also act on a small number of prokaryotic animals and viruses, and have no (or very little) physiological damage to humans and other animals and plants; bacteria are difficult to produce resistance to them. Therefore, the mechanism research of antimicrobial peptides and their commercial production (such as nisin, MBI, Protegrinalalogue, etc.) are becoming the direction of efforts. Effects of antimicrobial peptides on the ultrastructure of bacterial cell membranes, effects of antibacterial peptides and bacteria on chromosomal DNA, effects of DNA leakage on E. coli, antimicrobial peptides and bacteria, and chromosomal DNA. Antimicrobial peptides have been highly valued by pharmacologists and biologists for their high-spectrum antibacterial activity. Based on its primary structure, molecular biological and genetic engineering methods can be used to produce antibacterial transgenic plants and animals. A large number of antibacterial peptides can be expressed through genetic engineering techniques, making it the source of a new generation of peptide antibacterial drugs, showing a broad application prospects.

5 oligosaccharides

Oligosaccharides are not digested by digestive enzymes in the animal's intestine and cannot be used by microorganisms such as Salmonella and E. coli that are harmful to the body. After the oligosaccharides are used by the beneficial bacteria, the beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are proliferated in a large scale; the proliferation of beneficial bacteria produces lactic acid, butyric acid, acetic acid and propionic acid, which lowers the pH of the intestinal tract, thereby making The breeding of acid-resistant harmful bacteria is inhibited. Among them, Bifidobacterium has a strong immune effect on the animal body. Chemical prebiotics mainly refer to some oligosaccharides and oligosaccharides. Chemical probiotics were originally applied to human health foods. In recent years, a probiotic source added to animal feeds has been successively developed. Currently used species are α-glucosyl oligosaccharides, β-glucosyloligosaccharides, α-milk oligosaccharides, β-milk oligosaccharides, fructooligosaccharides, mannooligosaccharides, xylan, arabinans, galactosides, etc. .

6 Allicin

Garlic is a Liliaceae plant and has been used as a drug in our country for a long time. Nearly dozens of researches at home and abroad have proved that its extract and synthetic product, allicin, is a broad-spectrum antibacterial drug with various functions such as anti-cancer, cancer treatment, antihypertensive, anti-virus, and can be used as medicine and veterinary medicine. , pesticides, food additives and so on. Allitridum, as a green feed additive, has broad-spectrum antibacterial, no resistance to drug resistance, low residue, low cost, strong attractivity and flavoring, can promote animal growth, improve feed conversion, and improve survival. Rate, reduce feeding costs. To change the flavor and quality of the meat, 2% garlic powder was added to the feed, and the flavor of layer and broiler chickens increased. Garlic products can reduce sebum and abdominal fat thickness in broilers, which can be reduced by up to 19.75%. Adding 0.1% garlic powder to dairy cows' dietary concentrates, it was found that allicin produced a strong natural aroma of the concentrates and a strong decoction effect on dairy cows, which resulted in an average milk production increase of 2.28 kg per cow and improved. The rate was 11.22% (P 0.05), the milk fat percentage increased by 4.30%, and the daily consumption of condiment decreased by 0.8 kg per head.

7 Chinese herbs

Chinese herbs are natural plants and animals or minerals; the main active ingredients are polysaccharides, terpenoids, and alkaloids; they are rich in vitamins, minerals, and proteins; they can enhance the body's antibacterial, antiviral, and antioxidant abilities; some Chinese herbs can stimulate the endocrine system and immune system. Chinese herbal medicine feed additive has no antibiotic resistance; there is no drug resistance and drug residue problems; it can supplement nutrition, improve animal production performance, and improve the quality of animal products. A large number of studies have shown that Chinese medicine additives have preventive and therapeutic effects on the bacterial communicable diseases of chicks such as white fleas, colibacillosis, staphylococcal diseases, aspergillosis, and fowl cholera, and are of infectious laryngotracheitis, infectious bronchitis, and infectious mycoplasma. Diseases, infectious bursal disease, fowlpox and other viral infectious diseases also have control effects. For rabbits, poultry coccidiosis, cattle, swine epidemic diarrhea and other diseases have obvious therapeutic effect.

Currently, most of the natural plant and extracts feed additives put on the market are powders or powders. The production process is backward, the production equipment is simple, the processing is rough and simple, the variety is single, and the usage dose is generally large.

8 organic metal trace elements

Studies have shown that protein-chelated trace elements are more competitive than other types of trace elements in the absorption channel competition, element competition, and in vivo utilization. The production of protein-chelated trace elements: the hydrolyzed protein source - forming a mixture of amino acids and peptides - and then the sulfate and protein hydrolysate of the mineral element - reacts under appropriate conditions - generates a complex containing chelated mineral elements. Organic chromium maintains the metabolism of carbohydrates in the form of bioavailable glucose tolerance factors, affecting insulin secretion and can act as a steroidal regulator. Dietary addition of chromium can reduce fat deposition in poultry and pigs and increase protein deposition. In addition, chromium can also relieve stress in animals. Organochrome products, a specially selected yeast strain, have the ability to aggregate inorganic chromium into the body. After metabolism by yeast cells, inorganic chromium is converted to organic chromium. Inorganic chromium is difficult to absorb in the animal's intestine, only about 1% to 3%, while the absorption rate of organic chromium is 10% to 20%, the bioavailability of chromium in yeast is more efficient. A large number of studies have shown that chromium yeast can promote glucose metabolism in animals, promote the use of proteins, reduce fat deposition, and increase protein synthesis in the body. The results of animal experiments showed that chromium yeast (200 g/t) was added to the diet to improve the animal's immunity and to alleviate the stress caused by the external environment on the animals, thereby increasing the animal's growth rate, improving the carcass quality, reducing the incidence, and reducing death. rate. Amino acid chelated iron or protein chelated iron: The addition of protein chelated iron to pregnant sow diets can improve the reproductive performance of sows and reduce stillbirth and sucker mortality. Piglets are robust and have good mental status. Overcoming weaning stress. Lysine Copper: Copper participates in the body's reproductive activity by promoting the secretion of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus. High copper promotes growth. 9 Problems with the use of antibiotics as substitutes for feed additives

In production practice, the use of antibiotics can be reduced through the use of multiple alternatives. Antibiotic substitutes should be safe, efficient, convenient and inexpensive, and production management should be strengthened in the era of non-antibiotics.

Although the main source of enzyme preparations is microorganisms, it is not usually the pure products of enzymes. The relevant components of products (including some metabolites and some harmful products of microorganisms) may affect human health along with the food chain. Therefore, there is a need for safety evaluation of enzyme preparations including bacterial species. Only from Aspergillus, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus licheniformis can be directly used as feed additives. If genetic engineering bacteria containing antibiotics and bacteria with antibiotic resistance are used as microbial species, the results will be as immeasurable to humans as the abuse of antibiotics. Many studies have shown that the addition of oligosaccharides to animal (especially young animals) diets can promote animal growth, reduce disease occurrence, and improve feed utilization, but there are also experiments showing that adding oligosaccharides to diets in animal production There was no effect on performance, indicating that the additive effect of oligosaccharide feed additives was related to many factors, such as the animal breeding environment, animal species and age, the inherent level of oligosaccharides in the diet, and the amount of oligosaccharides in the feed. Some people think that high oligosaccharides will increase the rate of diarrhea, so most scholars recommend the use of oligosaccharides below 1.0%.

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